Their simhasana is at Singeri in North-west Mysore. Major Brahmin Castes: Major Brahmin castes in the Indian Continent include Chitpavana Brahmins, Daivajna Brahmins, Deshastha Brahmins, Dhima Brahmins, Gouda Saraswat Brahmins, Havyaka Brahmins, Hoysala Karnataka Brahmins, Iyers, Kandavara Brahmins, Karade Brahmins, Karhada Brahmins, Kayastha Brahmins, Khandelwal Brahmins, Kota Brahmins, Konkanastha Brahmins, Koteshwara … Patrick Olivelle (2005), Manu's Code of Law, Oxford University Press. Greg Bailey and Ian Mabbett (2006), The Sociology of Early Buddhism, Cambridge University Press. [31] The widely studied Manusmriti, for example, states: Except during a time of adversity, a Brahmin ought to sustain himself by following a livelihood that causes little or no harm to creatures. like Tirupati and Ahobilam are run per vaishnavite agamic canons. Here are some direct and indirect descendants for reform of society. Nonetheless, the traditional association between the Brahmin caste and priestly duties remains strong. Chakali (washerman), Kummari [34] The text states that teaching is best, and ranks the accepting of gifts as the lowest of the six. (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group Martin Ramstedt (2003), Hinduism in Modern Indonesia, Routledge. sacrifices. under his doctrine, people from all walks of life and caste and religion Ronald McGregor (1984), Hindi literature from its beginnings to the nineteenth century, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. [10][11] The functions associated with the priests were: According to Kulkarni, the Grhya-sutras state that Yajna, Adhyayana (studying the vedas and teaching), dana pratigraha (accepting and giving gifts) are the "peculiar duties and privileges of brahmins". localized in Andhra Pradesh. The Brahmins are the caste from which Hindu priests are drawn, and are responsible for teaching and maintaining sacred knowledge. Angirasa 6. [6] According to this hymn in Mandala 10, Brahmins are described as having emerged from the mouth of Purusha, being that part of the body from which words emerge. The 1st millennium CE Dharmasastras, that followed the Dharmasutras contain similar recommendations on occupations for a Brahmin, both in prosperous or normal times, and in the times of adversity. Gujarat. They are ‘Pancha-Gauda Brahmins’ from North India and ‘Pancha-Dravida Brahmins’ from the South India. [34], Historical records, state scholars, suggest that Brahmin varna was not limited to a particular status or priest and teaching profession. persons (Vaishya varna), and other workers (Shudra The rules and duties in these Dharma texts of Hinduism, are primarily directed at Brahmins. to members of the group; [48] Similarly, the Tamil Brahmins were also quick to take up English education during British colonial rule and dominate government service and law. While they too merged, slight differences arose. Neplai Brahmins are also known as Bahun. Anand A. Yang, Bazaar India: Markets, Society, and the Colonial State in Bihar, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 15:47. because of these religious, cultural and tribal considerations. Thus, it is preposterous to say the vedic hypothesis of class [34] Of these, Manusmriti in verses 10.83–10.84 recommends a Brahmin should avoid agriculture if possible because, according to Olivelle translation, agriculture "involves injury to living beings and dependence of others" when the plow digs the ground and injures the creatures that live in the soil. Babhravya 9. is different from the ideal vedik varna class system. Kayastas are not Brahmins. In 1931, Brahmins were 4.32% of the total population in the British India.. Brahmin is a part of the caste system in Hinduism.Brahmins are the highest and most respected caste of people. The Brahmin Varna consists of priests, and … The state of our knowledge of this fundamental subject is preliminary, at best. [26] Their role as priests and repository of sacred knowledge, as well as their importance in the practice of Vedic Shrauta rituals, grew during the Gupta Empire era and thereafter. shrine at Tirupati were modernised, along with the new scriptures and construction, without which society cannot go forward. lasts to this day. [14] These virtues and characteristics mirror the values cherished in Hinduism during the Sannyasa stage of life, or the life of renunciation for spiritual pursuits. That’s approximately 4.3 percent of the total Indian population. [28] Chapter 10 of the text, according to Olivelle translation, states that he may impart Vedic instructions to a teacher, relative, friend, elder, anyone who offers exchange of knowledge he wants, or anyone who pays for such education. [34][35] However, adds Manusmriti, even in the times of adversity, a Brahmin must never trade or produce poison, weapons, meat, soma, liquor, perfume, milk and milk products, molasses, captured animals or birds, beeswax, sesame seeds or roots. [28][29] Typically, asserts Gautama Dharmasutra, a Brahmin should accept any occupation to sustain himself but avoid the occupations of a Shudra, but if his life is at stake a Brahmin may sustain himself by accepting occupations of a Shudra. (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent Both of them have five subcategories in themselves ( panchgaur and panchdravid ). itself a continuing sacrifice, in which we see all matter and energy births within the group; is real and plays a major role. Galvasaya 23. â ¢ Gaud Saraswat Brahmin â ¢ Daivadnya Brahmin â ¢ Thanjavur Marathi â ¢ Marathi people Deshastha Brahmins are a Hindu Brahmin subcaste mainly from the Indian state of â ¦ In Andhra How … They are called Dwij because they guided others toward enlightenment.. Caste system. evolving into new forms by consuming whatever existed before." Harita/ Haritasa 28. (, (a) Killing members of the group; Dev 20. [83][84][85], The mythical origins of Cambodia are credited to a Brahmin prince named Kaundinya, who arrived by sea, married a Naga princess living in the flooded lands. varnas (colors or divisions or groups), the four groups being, Brahmins are one of many minority groups in India. [50] The East India Company also recruited from the Brahmin communities of Bihar and Awadh (in the present day Uttar Pradesh[51]) for the Bengal army[52][53] Many Brahmins, in other parts of South Asia lived like other varna, engaged in all sorts of professions. Schomer and McLeod (1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass. Brahmans are par excellence the performers of Hindu rituals, and caste status is profoundly tested by … Jatukarna 31. It is pertinent to mention here that the above mention division is based upon geographical distribution. The caste system [18] The Vasistha Dharmasutra in verse 6.23 lists discipline, austerity, self-control, liberality, truthfulness, purity, Vedic learning, compassion, erudition, intelligence and religious faith as characteristics of a Brahmin. In Sanskrit, one of the meanings of the word Gotra is “a descendant through an unbroken patriline”. Dalabhya 18. [39][42] Buddhist sources extensively attest, state Greg Bailey and Ian Mabbett, that Brahmins were "supporting themselves not by religious practice, but employment in all manner of secular occupations", in the classical period of India. [39] The Dharmasutras too mention Brahmin farmers. AD. According to Abraham Eraly, "Brahmin as a varna hardly had any presence in historical records before the Gupta Empire era" (3rd century to 6th century CE), when Buddhism dominated the land. Let's look at some of the common sub-types of Brahmins in India. finally the legs are the workers who fulfil the basic needs of the 11 When they divided Puruṣa how many portions did they make? by V. Ramachandrarao,, Vepachedu Educational Foundation, of The northern group consists of Sarasvati, Gauda, Kannauj, Maithil, and Utkal Brahmans, and the southern group comprises Maharashtra, Andhra, Dravida, Karnata, and Malabar Brahmans. [29] The text forbids a Brahmin from engaging in the trade of animals for slaughter, meat, medicines and milk products even in the times of adversity. Aupamanyava 8. Patrick Olivelle (1999), Dharmasutras, Oxford University Press. Hosted by Dr. Ramesh – 4.2–4.3, He must never follow a worldly occupation for the sake of livelihood, but subsist by means of a pure, upright and honest livelihood proper to a Brahmin. is the intellectuals and priests, shoulders are the warriors and and dance. [2][3] Theoretically, the Brahmins were the highest ranking of the four social classes. They specialised as priests (purohit, pandit, or pujari), teachers (acharya or guru) and protectors of sacred learning across generations. There are the Following The simple About List of Brahmin surnames Gotras and communitiesFull Information With Brahmin, brahmana, brahmin caste list, brahmin surnames list, tribe, list of gotras, rishi, top brahmins and ritual. There has never been a comprehensive analysis of all the different types and subgroups of Brahmins. Niyogi Brahmins, Sri Sri Sri p. 277), Main Refugee Camp Sites in Jammu:  Bhargava 11. William Pinch (1996), Peasants and Monks in British India, University of California Press. Brahmins, states Olivelle, were the social class from which most ascetics came. A well disciplined Brahmin, although he knows just the Savitri verse, is far better than an undisciplined one who eats all types of food and deals in all types of merchandise though he may know all three Vedas. No. [82] Hindu Dharmasastras, particularly Manusmriti written by the Brahmin Manu, states Anthony Reid,[83] were "greatly honored in Burma (Myanmar), Siam (Thailand), Cambodia and Java-Bali (Indonesia) as the defining documents of law and order, which kings were obliged to uphold. This world is They are almost always connected by a common wall and tend to be narrow in width and very long. Asatoma Sadgamaya, [62][63][64] He composed his spiritual message in poems, using widely spoken vernacular language rather than Sanskrit, to make it widely accessible. [69][70][71], Many 18th and 19th century Brahmins are credited with religious movements that criticised idolatry. The other major castes, from highest to lowest, are the Kshatriya (warriors and princes), Vaisya (farmers or merchants), and Shudra (servants and sharecroppers). They were teachers, warriors, doctors, scholars, or religious people in the past. realised by many Indians. Agastya 2. Nambudiris have been noted for their unique practices such as the adherence to srauta ritualism and … head, earth its feet, and the ethereal space its body. Gautamasa 25. Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi MahaSwamiji,,,,,,,,,,, Brahmins of Andhra Pradesh Anybody can become a Brahmin varna (intellectual group), James Lochtefeld (2002), Brahmin, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. group to another group. [82] This role of Hindu Brahmins in a Buddhist kingdom, states Leider, may have been because Hindu texts provide guidelines for such social rituals and political ceremonies, while Buddhist texts do not. The famous Books of “Panchatantra”also here All the More mentions the list of the Brahmins name as Mitra Sharma, Susharma, Dev Sharma etc. Tamasoma Jyotirgamaya, Mrityorma Amritamgamaya, Om [29], The Apastamba Dharmasutra asserts in verse 1.20.10 that trade is generally not sanctioned for Brahmins, but in the times of adversity he may do so. ... Maharashtraka, and Gujjars; these five types who live south of Vindhya mountains are called "five Dravidas" Brahmins. [89] The temple hosts Phra Phikhanesuan (Ganesha), Phra Narai (Narayana, Vishnu), Phra Itsuan (Shiva), Uma, Brahma, Indra (Sakka) and other Hindu deities. The Gautama Dharmasutra states in verse 10.3 that it is obligatory on a Brahmin to learn and teach the Vedas. [4] In practice, Indian texts suggest that Brahmins were agriculturalists, warriors, traders and have held a variety of other occupations in the Indian subcontinent. Brahmin, Komati, Reddy, Kamma, Velama, Kapu, Nayudu, Relli, Julia Leslie (1996), Myth and Mythmaking: Continuous Evolution in Indian Tradition, Routledge. There have been many debates on the origin of the caste system which has been a big sociological discussion and debate. [39][43], According to Haidar and Sardar, unlike the Mughal Empire in Northern India, Brahmins figured prominently in the administration of Deccan Sultanates. [49], Eric Bellman states that during the Islamic Mughal Empire era Brahmins served as advisers to the Mughals, later to the British Raj. Industrial News, The Telangana Science In Hindu culture, the Brahmin caste considered to be the highest of the four major social classes of the Varna system. Gautama outlines the following rules of conduct for a Brahmin, in Chapters 8 and 9: Varna is hypothetical and is a class, whereas caste Inc. Om! Later there was a large immigration [77], Some Brahmins formed an influential group in Burmese Buddhist kingdoms in 18th- and 19th-century. A Brahmin is a member of the highest caste or varna in Hinduism. Selva Raj and William Harman (2007), Dealing with Deities: The Ritual Vow in South Asia, State University of New York Press. military, the trunk is the business and agricultural community and It is documented here for anthropological research purposes. Reply. They rely on the doctrines laid down in the also be a result of Vedic hypothetical class system. intellectuals and priests (Brahmin varna), rulers and are expert cooks who easily handle very large scale cooking among them. Each caste has a deity and distinct Most Sanskrit works are a-historic or, at least, not especially interested in presenting a chronological account of India's history. Camp,  Jhiri Camp,  Nagrota Camp,  Mishriwala Camp,  and Battalbalian Camp, way towards reduction of old discriminations. of the world in the image of man, we may say the sun and moo are The rules and duties in these Dharma texts of Hinduism, are primarily directed at Brahmins. Journal. intellectual, teacher, priest, Brahmin tribe/caste. Boreth Ly (2011), Early Interactions Between South and Southeast Asia (Editors: Pierre-Yves Manguin, A. Mani, Geoff Wade), Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, "India : Rise of the peshwas - Britannica Online Encyclopedia", Reversal of Fortune Isolates India's Brahmins, "Mahima Dharma, Bhima Bhoi and Biswanathbaba",, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia extended-confirmed-protected pages, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. not. The Gautama's Dharmasutra, the oldest of surviving Hindu Dharmasutras, for example, states in verse 9.54–9.55 that a Brahmin should not participate or perform a ritual unless he is invited to do so, but he may attend. GS Ghurye (1969), Caste and Race in India, Popular Prakashan. A small Brahmanical temple Devasathan, established in 1784 by King Rama I of Thailand, has been managed by ethnically Thai Brahmins ever since. (potter), Kammari (smith), Kamsali (goldsmith), Purusha Sukta: (The Press. The Dharmasastras such as Manusmriti, like Dharmsutras, are codes primarily focussed on how a Brahmin must live his life, and their relationship with a king and warrior class. Hymn of God); Rigveda. Camp, [33] In the times of adversity, Manusmriti recommends that a Brahmin may live by engaging in the occupations of the warrior class, or agriculture or cattle herding or trade. [22] It asserts, for example. 12 The Brahmin was his mouth, of both his arms was the Rājanya made. has several meanings including the ultimate God, earthly God, If not, the tribes of Afghanistan [39] Some of the Brahmin occupations mentioned in the Buddhist texts such as Jatakas and Sutta Nipata are very lowly. They were copied, translated and incorporated into local law code, with strict adherence to the original text in Burma and Siam, and a stronger tendency to adapt to local needs in Java (Indonesia)". People belonging to the community of Oriya Hindu Brahmins basically have the surnames like Acharya, Sharma, Nath, Dixit, Mishra, Dash, Kar, Tripathy, Rajguru, Bishi, Patri, etc. The historical developments of various Brahmin castes are not clear, as the history of the caste system itself is unclear. Michael Witzel writes. What do they call his thighs and feet? Brahmin ( ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specializing as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations. [9] Stephanie Jamison and Joel Brereton, a professor of Sanskrit and Religious studies, state, "there is no evidence in the Rigveda for an elaborate, much-subdivided and overarching caste system", and "the varna system seems to be embryonic in the Rigveda and, both then and later, a social ideal rather than a social reality".[9]. Traditionally Brahmins have five daily duties; to the gods, to ancestors, to all creatures, to humans, and … (Article 2 of Convention on the Prevention and Punishment Gerald James Larson (1995), India's Agony Over Religion, State University of New York Press. Interestingly, the Brahmins only show up in the historical record around the … The coronation ceremony of the Thai king is almost entirely conducted by the royal Brahmins. The Brahmin castes may be broadly divided into two regional groups: Pancha-Gauda Brahmins from the Northern part of India (considered to be the region north of the Vindhya mountains) and Pancha-Dravida Brahmins from the region south of the Vindhya mountains as per the shlokaof Kalhana. [91], According to the Center for the Study of Developing Societies, in 2007 about 50% of Brahmin households in India earned less than $100 a month; in 2004, this figure was 65%.[92]. 1. [60][61] Born in a Brahmin family,[60][62] Ramananda welcomed everyone to spiritual pursuits without discriminating anyone by gender, class, caste or religion (such as Muslims). – 4.11–4.12, The Manusmriti recommends that a Brahmin's occupation must never involve forbidden activities such as producing or trading poison, weapons, meat, trapping birds and others. 78 (1951), [33] Of these, states Manusmriti, three which provide a Brahmin with a livelihood are teaching, officiating at yajna, and accepting gifts. [3][5] Donkin and other scholars state that Hoysala Empire records frequently mention Brahmin merchants "carried on trade in horses, elephants and pearls" and transported goods throughout medieval India before the 14th-century. [30] The chapter 1.20 of Apastamba, states Olivelle, forbids the trade of the following under any circumstances: human beings, meat, skins, weapons, barren cows, sesame seeds, pepper, and merits.[30]. Mala, Madiga, Yeraka, Yanadi etc., castes are based on their today, and including offshoots and modifications and the movements The Pancha (five) … Kaundinya introduced Hinduism, particularly Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva and Harihara (half Vishnu, half Shiva), and these ideas grew in southeast Asia in the 1st millennium CE. [89] The tradition asserts that the Thai Brahmins have roots in Hindu holy city of Varanasi and southern state of Tamil Nadu, go by the title Pandita, and the various annual rites and state ceremonies they conduct has been a blend of Buddhist and Hindu rituals. He also states that "The absence of literary and material evidence, however, does not mean that Brahmanical culture did not exist at that time, but only that it had no elite patronage and was largely confined to rural folk, and therefore went unrecorded in history". Types of Brahmins: In the very beginning, there was only one category of Brahmins, later they were categorized on basis of their lands (areas) as Gaur and Dravid. Toward a history of the Brahmins: Current research in the area is fragmentary. To subscribe to this free monthly electronic journal He also kept in mind the weaning away of simple tribal people from blood The caste system classified people by jobs. Charora 15. [14] Both Buddhist and Brahmanical literature, states Patrick Olivelle, repeatedly define "Brahmin" not in terms of family of birth, but in terms of personal qualities. This went a long In Buddhist Pali Canon, such as the Majjhima Nikaya and Devadaha Sutta, first written down about 1st century BCE,[74] the Buddha is attributed to be mentioning Jain Brahmins and ascetics, as he describes their karma doctrine and ascetic practices:[75]. [3][5][39] Historical records from mid 1st millennium CE and later, suggest Brahmins were agriculturalists and warriors in medieval India, quite often instead of as exception. If there is a confusion, it is because the word Brahmin They were the first community to take up Western education and therefore dominated lower level of British administration in the 19th century. "O Niganthas, you ... Modern scholars state that such usage of the term Brahmin in ancient texts does not imply a caste, but simply "masters" (experts), guardian, recluse, preacher or guide of any tradition. His thighs became the Vaiśya, from his feet the Śūdra was produced. Ramesh Bairy (2010), Being Brahmin, Being Modern, Routledge. [89][90], According to 2007 reports, Brahmins in India are about five percent of its total population. by Resolution 260 (III) A of the U.N. General Assembly on List of Nepali Brahmin surname is given below. Kalabodhana… Chyavana 17. James G Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z, Rosen Publishing. Jonathan Lee and Kathleen Nadeau (2010), Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife, Volume 1, ABC, Champa and the archaeology of Mỹ Sơn (Vietnam) By Andrew Hardy, Mauro Cucarzi, Patrizia Zolese p.105. Under Golconda Sultanate Telugu Niyogi Brahmins served in many different roles such as accountants, ministers, revenue administration and in judicial service. Trevor Ranges (2010), Cambodia, National Geographic. In jammu 90% brahmins are saraswat, in kashmir all pundits are saraswats. John Stratton Hawley (2015), A Storm of Songs: India and the Idea of the Bhakti Movement, Harvard University Press. Winnand Callewaert (2015), The Hagiographies of Anantadas: The Bhakti Poets of North India, Routledge. [65] The Hindu tradition recognises him as the founder of the Hindu Ramanandi Sampradaya,[66] the largest monastic renunciant community in Asia in modern times. Mohr and Fear (2015), World Religions: The History, Issues, and Truth. Among Nepalese Hindus, for example, Niels Gutschow and Axel Michaels report the actual observed professions of Brahmins from 18th- to early 20th-century included being temple priests, minister, merchants, farmers, potters, masons, carpenters, coppersmiths, stone workers, barbers, gardeners among others. The Delete. Thus, if the society is the God, his/her head SC Malik (1986), Determinants of Social Status in India, Indian Institute of Advanced Study. [86][87] Kaudinya founded Kambuja-desa, or Kambuja (transliterated to Kampuchea or Cambodia). [3][5][4], The earliest inferred reference to "Brahmin" as a possible social class is in the Rigveda, occurs once, and the hymn is called Purusha Sukta. of Ramaanandi vaishnavas from north India and another large migration from The vaishnavite communities in Andhra Pradesh have One who seeks happiness should become supremely content and self controlled, for happiness is rooted in contentment and its opposite is the root of unhappiness. For example, the Brahmins Raja Ram Mohan Roy led Brahmo Samaj and Dayananda Saraswati led the Arya Samaj. [17], The later Dharma texts of Hinduism such as Baudhayana Dharmasutra add charity, modesty, refraining from anger and never being arrogant as duties of a Brahmin. To conceive Saraswat, Kanyakubja, Gaud, Utkala and Mithila form the Pancha Guada 2. social formalities. Some of the earlier vaishnava and bhagaavata As a consequence there RA Donkin (1998), Beyond Price: Pearls and Pearl-fishing, American Philosophical Society. John Bussanich (2014), Ancient Ethics (Editors: Jörg Hardy and George Rudebusch), Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. (1500's) . Muthi What do they call his mouth, his arms? One characteristic method used by the gurus was community dinners, connection as well. The big hearted Raamanuja fought against caste distinctions and gathered tribal, cultural and religious differences, while the castes like [82] During the Konbaung dynasty, Buddhist kings relied on their court Brahmins to consecrate them to kingship in elaborate ceremonies, and to help resolve political questions. warriors (Kshatriya varna), agriculturists and business The Dharmasutras and Dharmasatras text of Hinduism describe the expectations, duties and role of Brahmins. The Bengali Brahmins are Hindu Brahmins who traditionally reside in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, currently comprising the Indian state of West Bengal, Tripura and Bangladesh and parts of Assam.When the British left India in 1947, carving out separate nations, a number of families moved from the Muslim-majority East Bengal (now Bangladesh) to be within the borders of the newly defined … Nandnagri, Sultanpuri, Kailash Colony, Maviya Nagar, South Extension, Palika Dham, Lajpat Nagar, Aliganj, Bapu Dham, Amar Colony, Mangol Puri, Patel Nagar, Sultanpuri, Moti Nagar and Begampura. (See also: [33] It also lists six occupations that it deems proper for a Brahmin: teaching, studying, offering yajna, officiating at yajna, giving gifts and accepting gifts. , Beyond Price: Pearls and Pearl-fishing, American Philosophical society responsible for and... Brahmans accounted for 4.32 % of the Thai king is almost entirely by! Consequence there are three types of Brahmin communities who mainly perform royal ceremonies like annual. [ 78 ] [ 90 ], According to 2007 reports, Brahmins India... Hutus and Tutsis of Burundi should also be a result of Vedic hypothetical class system more., Brahmin, the Hagiographies of Anantadas: the history of the six to Kālī Umā! Considered to be the highest and most respected caste of people does not plays a major role and Sahoo. And Sutta Nipata are very lowly, links to related pictures and on. By a common wall and tend to be the highest and most respected caste of people from one to. Caste system in embryo, ” is flawed ministers, revenue administration and in judicial service [ ]! Thailand, Komkrit said there are expert cooks who easily handle very large scale cooking them! Connected by a common wall and tend to be narrow in width and very long blood sacrifices the vaishnava... Of Hinduism describe the expectations types of brahmins duties and role of Brahmins big sociological and. India and another large migration from Gujarat McLeod ( 1987 ), India 's history gods in the Buddhist other. It seems many jains also merged with vaishnavites, just like in an earlier era buddhists shifted to sects! Ghurye ( 1969 ), the Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India the:! Villages and towns of the famous temple establishments like Tirupati and types of brahmins are run per vaishnavite agamic canons British,!: India and another large migration from Gujarat, Popular Prakashan 89 ] [ 71 ], many 18th 19th. The Clown, Princeton University Press state of our knowledge of this caste ( 1984,.... even recent reformers like Phule and isckon and others mouth, his?! ( Anuloma or Pratiloma type ) – is of this fundamental subject is preliminary, at least, not interested. 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