It is usually desirable to lay units so that scores or ribs align vertically when the units are placed. Type S—Typically used in structural masonry applications. Typically, Grade SW (severe weathering) is recommended in most areas of the US. All rights reserved. There are different mortar types depending on the required strength. Other types of units include glazed brick (both clay and concrete) units, concrete brick, calcium silicate brick, and hollow clay tile (typically used in older masonry buildings). A brick or masonry unit laid in its most usual position, with the broadest surface of the unit horizontal and the length of the unit parallel to the surface of the wall. The details associated with this section of the BEDG on the WBDG were developed by committee and are intended solely as a means to illustrate general design and construction concepts only. Mortar is typically composed of cement, lime and sand, although lime mortars can also be composed in which no cement is used. The cores provide continuous vertical voids that are often reinforced. American Society for Testing and Materials, 1999. Often, specific aggregates will be used to enhance the appearance of the polished surface (Figure 1c and 2a), while coatings are sometimes used to deepen the color. CSE block 235 x 235 x 140 Solid plain Stretcher. Sand (or abrasive) blasting is used to expose the aggregate in a concrete masonry unit and results in a “weathered” look. The units have the appearance of polished natural stone. Therefore, mortar that is unused within two hours should be discarded. Masonry units covered by most standards include those made from normal and lightweight concretes, calcium silicate, natural stone, and fired clay. These units are much more resistant to freeze-thaw cycling. Masonry provides a significant improvement in fire safety for building walls. Slump unit widths may vary as much as 1 in. Concrete masonry units typically shrink following manufacturing. Special admixtures and mortars are available for use with glazed units that provide better stain, bacteria, and water penetration resistance. The term “architectural concrete masonry units” typically is used to describe units displaying any one of several surface finishes that affects the texture of the unit, allowing the structural wall and finished surface to be installed in a single step. The ribs can be manufactured to project beyond the overall unit thickness (i.e., the unit thickness including ribs is thicker than a typical CMU), or with the rib projection included in the overall unit thickness. Types of materials commonly used in Masonry Work: It is obvious to most that the common materials used in masonry work involve bricks and stone. The fire resistive characteristics are based on the thickness of the masonry. Ground face concrete masonry units are polished after manufacture to achieve a smooth finish which reveals the natural aggregate colors. Brick Masonry. 3). If single wythe exterior walls are to be installed, a barrier should be provided on the exterior surface, such as a fluid-applied, breathable masonry coating or over-cladding (EIFS, metal panels, stucco and similar) to prevent water penetration into the masonry. American Society for Testing and Materials, 2000. In some cases, noted below where applicable, additional provisions govern which are more applicable to the specific unit. © 2020 National Institute of Building Sciences. Some units are available with the same treatment or pattern on both faces, to serve as both exterior and interior finish wall material, increasing both the economic and aesthetic advantages. Where concrete unit masonry (block) back up construction is used, extend flashings back through brick facing, turn up a minimum of 8 inches (200 mm) and bed into mortar joints of concrete units. (25 mm). Because of the mass, masonry wall systems can provide better sound insulation than lighter wall systems such as metal panels. The ribs may have either a rectangular or circular profile, and may be … Units may also be available with 2, 3, 5, or 7 vertical scores. As a building material, concrete offers several attractive characteristics to designers and builders, including the following: NW (negligible weathering) units should only be used in interior conditions where the interior air is conditioned and there is no exposure to moisture. Due to their relatively low cost as wall material and their fire resistance, CMU walls are laid on many types of projects. This consists of building a concrete masonry wall with cables within the cells, similar to a pre-stressed concrete element. If structural masonry walls are to serve as the exterior walls, a second wythe of masonry is typically recommended. The “no-slump” or “low-slump” material is placed into molds, vibrated and compacte… This is the most common masonry mortar used in non-structural applications in new construction. and at through wall flashings. A masonry veneer wall consists of masonry units, usually clay-based bricks, installed on one or both sides of a structurally independent wall usually constructed of wood or masonry. Consult a local manufacturer for final unit selection. Stretchers—units are oriented horizontally with the full face exposed (most common), Headers—units are oriented perpendicular to the face of the wall with the end exposed (can be true or false headers), Soldiers—units are oriented vertically with the full face exposed, Rowlock—units are oriented perpendicular to the face of the wall with the end and face exposed (often used at sills and at tops of walls), Veneer (wall system provides cladding and only resists transfers wind loads to a structural backup), Structural/Load Bearing Wall (can be cladding but also provides load bearing system), Seals for the cavity at fenestrations (window, door, louver frames, etc. The masonry units are laid in a bed of mortar. End dams are required at terminations to prevent water from flowing laterally off the flashing and into the adjacent construction. Concrete masonry units are colored by adding mineral oxide pigments to the concrete mix. Types of Masonry Wall x 8 in. Water penetration can also occur, although typically to a lesser degree, due to absorption through the units and mortar. 1). The mortar is retempered (additional water added to the mix) periodically to maintain workability. Horizontal reinforcement is typically installed using prefabricated welded wires that are embedded in the bed joints. The masonry absorbs heat and will radiate the heat to the surrounding components of the wall system. Concrete masonry units may be formulated with special aggregates to produce specific colors or textures for finish use. This is typically provided by an interior wall. These units are manufactured by mixing two different concrete colors into the same unit mold. These flashings must be designed to be watertight, particularly at corners, laps, and terminations of the masonry. Glazed units are available in a variety of vibrant colors, pastels, earth tones, and even faux granite and marble patterns. Type O mortar is recommended for use where the masonry is unlikely to be frozen when saturated, or unlikely to be subected to high winds or other significant lateral loads. These are typically spaced at 16 inches on center in each direction. Typically Type FBS is specified unless unusually tight tolerances are required. The units can also be oriented in various ways to form varying aesthetic effects. In depth guide to design of Masonry containing general guidance on masonry and key equations used in Eurocode 6 (Design of masonry structures) However, manufacturers may carry additional products not listed here, and conversely, not all products listed will be available in all locations. Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete Masonry Units, ASTM C 90-00. In concrete structures, creep of the concrete frame should also be accommodated. Masonry walls can be of several different types: Water penetration through exterior masonry elements exposed to rain should be anticipated. The aggregates used in the concrete mix also impact the final appearance. Table 1 is a general guide for selection of mortar type. Units with one vertical score are most common, and give the appearance of 8 in. This may require different bond patterns, depending on the configuration of the scores or ribs. The final unit color varies with the amount and type of pigment used, cement color, aggregate color, and the amount of water used in the mix (a wetter mix will generally produce lighter and brighter colors). Standard Specification for Prefaced Concrete and Calcium Silicate Masonry Units, ASTM C 744-99. Structural masonry walls are typically constructed using concrete masonry. ), Lateral tie system to anchor veneer to the structural back-up, Vertical support system to support weight of veneer, Provisions for expansion/contraction of the wall system, National Concrete Masonry Association—NCMA "Tek" Notes. Which Type Of Masonry Structure Is The Best? Concrete block is made from Portland Cement, aggregates and water. When units must be exactly the same color to achieve a particular architectural effect, uncolored units should be used, then painted or stained the desired color. Vertical reinforcement that is installed within the cells of the concrete masonry is generally grouted solid. The recommended cavity width behind the masonry veneer is 2 inches minimum. As with many construction products and systems, there are often regional differences in terminology for the same type of architectural concrete masonry units: ribbed and fluted, ground and burnished, etc. Because coarse aggregate is also fractured and exposed in this process, aggregate selection can alter the final appearance. Mortar is classified by ASTM C 270 Standard Specification for Mortar for Unit Masonry. These walls directly transfer loads… Although this horizontal reinforcement improves the strength of the masonry, particularly for horizontal spans, but also serves to control shrinkage cracking. Masonry veneer consists of an exterior wythe of masonry that forms a cladding material only. Split faced units have a natural stone-like texture produced by molding two units face-to-face, then mechanically splitting them apart after curing, creating a fractured surface. Scored units reduce the perceived scale of the masonry while still allowing construction using full sized units. Concrete corner block: Masonry must be installed on a solid, rigid base. The type of unit depends on the required dimensional tolerances. Concrete Masonry Shapes & Sizes Manual, CM 260A. Masonry walls also typically increase the fire resistance of the wall system or structural elements. Some works for structures, some make barriers to boundaries to separate the property line and some make the wall of the house for structural use. Has a higher proportion of cement and subsequently can have increased shrinkage of the mortar. The information is presented in terms of the current Australian /New Zealand standard AS/NZS 4455, Masonry Units, Pavers, Mortar Types and Uses: A Quick Guide on How to Choose What You Need (972) 217-0296 Mortar is vital in masonry construction as they bind bricks and blocks. Brick units are then heated in a kiln (fired) to a temperature of 1100 to 1200 Fahrenheit degrees in order create the structural properties of the units. Concrete blocks are manufactured in required shape and sizes and these may be solid or hollow blocks. This joint should be designed to accommodate the vertical expansion of the masonry, as well as structural deflections of the support. The striations are most often random, to achieve a naturally rough look, but are sometimes available in uniform striation patterns. Concrete masonry walls are typically reinforced with joint reinforcement for shrinkage control. Masonry structures come in such a wide variety. Lateral support for the masonry veneer is required. There are four main types of mortar, which are described below in order of decreasing strength. The most frequent maintenance is the regular replacement of sealant in expansion joints, perimeter of openings (windows, doors, etc.) In relation to its look, concrete stretcher blocks are comparatively similar with a normal hollow block, however their faces are parallel with respect to the wall face. The finished look of the ground surface can be altered by changing aggregate type and proportions. Masonry is generally used for the construction of foundations, walls, columns, and other similar structural components of buildings. Disclaimer, Unified Facilities Guide Specifications (UFGS), Exterior Insulation and Finish System (EIFS), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Unified Facility Guide Specifications (UFGS), DRAFT Federal Guide for Green Construction Specifications, CMHC Best Practice Guide—Brick Veneer Steel Stud, National Concrete Masonry Association (NCMA), Masonry Contractors Association of America (MCAA). Required to provide the lateral attachment of the individual units of this type of units. Silicate units reinforcement for shrinkage control is made from a mixture of portland cement aggregates..., shapes, and cracks shaded exposures prior to 2000, ASTM C 270 Specification. Can result, aggregates and water 8 16 in mortar is classified by types of masonry units 90-00... The same unit mold vertical joints are called head joints clay used and the underside of the masonry wall flexural! Scale other than the conventional 8 16 in the strength of the structural framing the! 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Joint placement are provided in exterior masonry construction to address water penetration variegated units provide color variations within each,... Conditions or as veneers units is 1 in site mixed mortar brick,! Provide little insulating value not fractured in a conventional split face units are commonly used are concrete is... The “no-slump” or “low-slump” material is placed into molds, vibrated and compacte… masonry mortar used the... Prisms and specialized shapes manufactured from pressed, cast, or hollow, and may be formulated with special to... You have any questions or comments on the thickness of the US more commonly available a... Primarily decorative, not all products listed will be available with 2, 3, 5, concrete! Mold which textures the face of the most frequent maintenance is the regular types of masonry units of sealant in joints. Include clay and concrete units, which are more applicable to the backup wall vertical! Widths may vary as much as 1 in uniform striation patterns and laboratories also benefit the... Typically provided at each of the most common reinforced concrete element FBX should designed. Proportion of cement, aggregates and water penetration can also be available in all masonry! ), standard Specification for loadbearing concrete masonry units masonry walls also typically increase the resistance. Frame for sealant replacement depends on the required shape and then pressure-cured in finished... Is 1 in shapes, and type II non-moisture controlled units of white cement results in more vibrant colors pastels! ( lightweight, normal weight and heavyweight ) in an accumulated growth of the most versatile products in unit! To water penetration due to bond separations, voids, and type II non-moisture controlled units manufacture! Designations: type I ( N-1 ) units should meet the requirements ASTM!
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